Six Months Course in Repair & Maintenance of Bio-Medical Equipments


Background:             For any Govt. employment in J &K, the Services Selection Board and other Recruitment Agencies approve any Six Months certificate course done through any recognized institute. NIELIT at present does not offer any six months training program. The courses offered so far are either of one year duration or of 80 Hrs / 40 Hrs duration.

Scope:                        J&K State has a population of over 1.24 Cr, with a literacy rate of around 68.74 %, of which around 10% are unemployed. J&K has the highest number of Accredited Centres among Northern India, both at Block and Tehsil Level, offering a broad base for training of such candidates at district and block levels.

Scheme:                     The Courses will be run through Accredited Centre’s of NIELIT. The registration, Examination and Certification will be done by NIELIT Regional Centre.

Duration                     Six months @ 2 hrs per day, six days a week. 


M-VI    Six Months Course in Repair & Maintenance of Bio-Medical Equipments

  • Basic Building Blocks of Biomedical Equipments.
  • Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements.
  • Diagnostic Laboratory Equipments.
  • Imaging Equipments


M-V  Six Months Course in Operation, Maintenance and Servicing of Biomedical Equipments

DC Electricity and AC Electricity: DC and AC Electricity Fundamentals, Concept of the Charge, Current, Voltage, Power, Resistance, Conductance, Capacitance, Inductance, Mutual Inductance, Magnetism, Transformer, AC and DC Motors, AC Wave form, Cells and Batteries.

Passive Components:, Resistor- Introduction, Types, Colour Coding, Specification, Variable Resistors, Property of Thermostats and Fuses, Series and Parallel Resistive Circuits. Capacitor- Introduction, Types, Colour Coding, Specification, Polarized and Unpolarized Capacitors, Variable Capacitors, Series and Parallel Capacitive Circuits.

Inductor: Introduction, Specification, Magnetic material, Transformer, Types of Transformers and their Circuits. LCR Series and Parallel Circuits.

Active Components and Semiconductor Devices: Semiconductor Physics- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors, P and N Type Extrinsic Semiconductors. Diodes-Types of Diodes, Rectifiers, Half Wave Rectifier, Full Wave Rectifier- Centre Taped and Bridge Type, Zener Diode- Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator. Power Supplies- Unregulated and Regulated. Transistor- Introduction, Types, Symbols, NPN Transistors, PNP Transistors, Transistor Biasing, Transistor Applications Transistor as a Switch, Transistor as an Amplifier, FET- Introduction, Types, Symbols, JFET – Basic Theory, Operation, Characteristics, Biasing, MOSFET- Depletion MOSFET, Enhancement MOSFET, FET Applications. IGBT, Thyristors, Their Working Principal, Characteristics Specifications and Applications. Popular Analog ICs- Voltage Regulator, Operational Amlifiers, Timers, Opt couplers, PWM Regulators, Study of Data book etc.

Digital Electronic Components: Combinational and Sequential Circuits- Logic Gates, Latchs,Flip-Flops, Multiplexers, Demultiplexers, Registers, Decoders, Drivers, Counters, Tristate Switches. Microprocessors, Microcontrollers. LCD and LED Displays. Introduction to various Logic Families and their Characteristics, TTL and CMOS and Their Pakaging, Diffrerent Types of Memories.

 Mechanical Components: Switches Introduction Different Types Fuses, Connectors, Wheels, Drums, Pulleys, Belts Gears, Chains, Pistons, Bearings, Springs, Sensors and Transducers, Nuts and Bolts, Washers, Knobs, Electro-mechanical Relays etc.

Testing and Measuring Equipments: Voltmeter, Ammeter, Ohmmeter, Analog Multimeter, Digital Multimeter, LCR Meter, Signal Generator, Analog IC Tester, Digital IC Tester, Power Supplies, Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) etc.

Soldering Technique and PCBs: Soldering- Introduction, Solder, Soldering Flux, Soldering Iron, Soldering Station, Soldering Procedure, Wick, Desoldering Pump, Desoldering Station, Desoldering Procedure. Surface Mount Devices, Rework Station, Rework Procedure. Printed Circuit Board- Introduction, Types of PCBs, Single sided, Double sided, Multi Layer.

Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation: The age of Biomedical Engineering, Development of biomedical Instrumentation, Biometrics, Man-Instrumentation System, Problems encountered in measuring a living system, Patient care and monitoring System.

Human Anatomy and Physiology : Cell structure and function, Tissues, The cardiovascular system, The Digestive system, The Skeletal System, The Respiratory System, The Nervous system, The Urinary System and introduction to other body systems.

Sources of biomedical equipments and Measurements: Stimulation of cells and Tissues, Resting Potentials and Action Potentials, Depolarization and Repolarization, Polarization curve. Bioelectric potentials, Biopotential Electrodes.

Cardiovascular Measurements: Electrocardiography, Echocardiography, Measurement of Blood Pressure, Measurement of Blood Flow, Measurement of Cardiac Out put and Measurement of Heart Sounds.

Biochemical System Measurements: Chemical composition of human body, Blood and other body Fluids, Blood Cell Counting, Biochemical Transducers, Chemical Tests and Automation of chemical Tests.

Computer in Biomedical Instrumentation : Introduction to Microprocessors and Computer, Block Diagram of Computer, Computer Interfacing with Biomedical Equipments and its Application.

Electrical safety of patient and equipments: Physiological effect of electric current, Electric current Shock hazards from Biomedical Equipments, Safety Measures and Methods of Accident prevention .

ECG Machine: General consideration, Working of heart during a single pumping cycle , mechanical conduction-systole/diastole, electrical conduction, bio-potential generation in heart muscle, Einthoven’s triangle of potential difference across the heart ,types of patient leads and shape of electrocardiogram, Biopotential sensors/ electrodes,

ECG Recorder- block diagram , operation – fundamental procedure for taking an electrocardiograph , placement of patients electrodes (limb and chest electrodes )

Maintenance- procedure for checking an ECG machine, repair explanation of circuit diagram of representative ECG machine , block diagram , trouble shooting of ECG machine, fault detection, diagnose and remedy charts , ECG flowcharts.

BP apparatus and stethoscope: General consideration, blood pressure , blood pressure measurement –inderect blood pressure measurement, operation of BP apparatus, working principle of BP apparatus, maintenance and repair procedures.

Clorometer and spectrophmeter: General consideration –basic theory of transmittance , absorbance , phenomenon in different concentration solution ,optics of colorimeter ,beer lamberts law, block diagram of colorimeter and spectrophotometer , circuit diagram, optical diagram , control panels, optical filter operating instruction, concentration

Measurement, wavelength calibration, repair and maintenance of colorimeter and spectrophotometer

Centrifuge: Basic working principle , working of motor, speed control of motor, timers Centrifuge in use, block diagram, circuit diagram, controls etc, repair and maintenance of centrifuges.

Binocular microscope; Optics , Different types of Microscopes, Block Diagram, Eye-Pieces, Objectives, Binocular Head, Gear Housing, Mechanical Stage, Electronic Power supply, Microscopes in use- different parts and controls, Repair and Maintenance

Hb meter: Basic working principle ,optics of instrument , Hb meter in use , block diagram , circuit diagram, parts and controls, preparations for measurements, Precautions, Measurement Procedure, Repair and maintenance of Hb Meter.

pH Meter: Working Principal, pH Electrode, pH Mete in Use, Block Diagram, Circuit Diagram, Different Controls, Measurement procedure, Repair and maintenance.

Physics of radiographic Imaging.: Introduction, Electromagnetic Radiations, X-Rays,         X-Rays Generation, Bremsstrahlung Radiations, Characteristic Radiations, Diagnostic X-rays, Radiation Quantities from Diagnostic X-rays Procedurs.

X-Ray Machine Installation and Operation : Block Diagram of X-ray machine, Different Parts – collimator, X-Ray tube, C-Arm, Weight Balance, Pulleys, X-Ray tube Adjustment, Stand, Control unit, Wiring, Base, Installation of X-Ray machine,          Different Controls- Time selector, Current (mA) selector, Voltage (KVp) Selector, Operation of X-ray Machine, Radiographic Chart.

Maintenance of X-Ray Machine: X-ray Tube- Working principal of Stationary and Rotatory X-ray Tube, Block Diagram of X-Ray Generator Circuit, Line Contactor, X-ray Contacter, Mechanical Parts of X-ray Machine, Poper Function Test, Cleaning, Tube current Adjustment, Calibration, Timer Test points, Trouble shooting, Safety During Trouble shooting, Trouble Chart.

Physics and Scanning modes of Ultrasound: Introduction to Ultrasound Imaging, Physics of Ultrasound, Reflection, Refraction and Transmission, Relation between Velocity, Frequency and Wave –Length Amplitude (A) Scan, A-scanner Block Diagram, Brightness (B) Scan, B-Scannner Block Diagram, Time-Motion (M) Scan, M-Scanner Block Diagram.

Ultrasound Machine Installation and Operation: Different parts of Ultrasound Machine-Scanner, Transducer, Computer system, Printer, Soft wares, Accessories, Hardware Installation, Software Installation, Ultrasound Scanner Keyboard layout, Main Screen Layout, Operation with Sliders, B-Mode Imaging, M-Mode Imaging, Measurements and calculation, Report Page Saving and Printing.

Maintenance of Ultrasound Machine: Testing and Maintenance of Scanner, Transducer, Computer system, Printer, Accessories and Software, Proper Function Test, Cleaning, Transducer Safety, Calibration, , Trouble shooting, Safety During Trouble shooting, Trouble Charts.

Other Imaging Equipments: Introduction to CT Scan machine, MRI machine, Fluoroscopy machine, Endoscopy machine, Angiography machine etc.

Hospital Visiting: Equipment History, Inspection, Testing and Measuring, Calibration, Drawing and Designing, History sheet and logbook, Tagging, Troubleshooting.

Precautions and safety: Electrical Safety, Rodiational safety, Danger of Electromagnetic Radiations, Electromagnetic Interference, Safety Measures for Hospital workers, Patients, Attendants and Public members.